"Jehovah's Witnesses—1998 Yearbook Report". In this case, medical staff may act without consent, by obtaining a court order in a non-emergency situation, or without such in an emergency. [72][73] A 1925 issue of The Golden Age commended a man for donating blood 45 times without payment. Putney, Leeann J. [101] In a series of articles in the Journal of Medical Ethics US neurologist Osamu Muramoto, who is a medical adviser to the AJWRB, has raised issues including what he claims is coercion to refuse transfusions, doctrinal inconsistency, selective use of information by the Watch Tower Society to exaggerate the dangers of transfusions and the use of outdated medical beliefs. Jehovah’s Witnesses, with at least 7.5 million active members worldwide and around 130 000 in the UK, are the most well-known religious community who decline transfusion of specific blood components. After considering that material, quite a number of readers wrote letters of appreciation; they admitted that they had had those faults, but they had been moved to repent and change.". Quality in blood and tissue establishments and hospital blood banks, 3: Care and selection of whole blood and component donors (including donors of pre-deposit autologous blood), 4: Premises and quality assurance at blood donor sessions, 5: Collection of a blood or component donation, 6: Evaluation and manufacture of blood components, 8: Evaluation of novel blood components, production processes and blood packs: generic protocols, 9: Microbiology tests for donors and donations: general specifications for laboratory test procedures, 10: Investigation of suspected transfusion-transmitted infection, 12: Donation testing (red cell immunohaematology), 13: Patient testing (red cell immunohaematology), 14: Guidelines for the use of DNA/PCR techniques in Blood Establishments, 15: Molecular typing for red cell antigens, 21: Tissue banking: tissue retrieval and processing, 23: Specification for the uniform labelling of blood, blood components and blood donor samples, 24: Specification for the uniform labelling of human tissue products using ISBT 128, 25: Standards for electronic data interchange within the UK Blood Transfusion Services, 26: Specification for blood pack base labels, 27: Specification for labelling consumables used in therapeutic product production, Annex 1: Standards available from the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control, Annex 2: ISBT 128 check character calculation, Annex 5: Blood Components for Contingency Use, Bone Marrow and Peripheral Blood Stem Cell, 2: Basics of blood groups and antibodies, 4: Safe transfusion – right blood, right patient, right time and right place, 6: Alternatives and adjuncts to blood transfusion, 7: Effective transfusion in surgery and critical care, 8: Effective transfusion in medical patients, 9: EFFECTIVE transfusion in obstetric practice, 10: Effective transfusion in paediatric practice, 12: Management of patients who do not accept transfusion, Aide Memoir Interpretations\Clarifications, Principles of the EI Guidance Issued by the MHRA, 12.2: Jehovah’s Witnesses and blood transfusion, Safe transfusion – right blood, right patient, right time and right place, Alternatives and adjuncts to blood transfusion, Effective transfusion in surgery and critical care, Effective transfusion in medical patients, EFFECTIVE transfusion in obstetric practice, Effective transfusion in paediatric practice, Management of patients who do not accept transfusion, Anxiety about the risks of blood transfusion, Jehovah’s Witnesses and blood transfusion, Mental competence and refusal of transfusion, http://www.rcseng.ac.uk/publications/docs/jehovahs_witness.html. A Jehovah's Witness being treated at St. Vincent's Medical Center was administered a blood transfusion despite his explicit request not to be given that procedure, which violates his religious beliefs. "[105] He says the objection to blood transfusions on the basis of biblical proscriptions against eating blood is similar to the refusal of a heart transplant on the basis that a doctor warned a patient to abstain from eating meat because of his high cholesterol level. The judge is played by Emma Thompson. [62] The organization confirms that members have accepted blood transfusions, despite the imposition in 1961 of a communal shunning policy for willful acceptance. Elders were instructed to revert to the older 1999 edition of the medical directives and identity cards.[95]. A teenage Jehovah’s Witness in the UK must have a blood transfusion to save her life despite her religious objections, a senior judge ruled today. Young adults also showed a willingness to accept blood transfusions. [128] He has questioned why Witnesses, although viewing blood as sacred and symbolizing life, are prepared to let a person die by placing more importance on the symbol than the reality it symbolizes. [123] A 1990 Watch Tower brochure on blood quoted a 17th-century anatomist to support its view. The court said: "The freedom to accept or refuse specific medical treatment, or to select an alternative form of treatment, is vital to the principles of self-determination and personal autonomy. In a later article, members were reminded that Jehovah's Witnesses do not donate blood or store their own blood prior to surgery. The researchers commented, "There is either some lack of understanding or refusal to follow doctrine among some members". You are reading page 2 of Jehovah's witness nurse and blood transfusion. [7][9], The doctrine was introduced in 1945, and has undergone some changes since then. "[67], Ambivalence and rejection of the blood doctrine dates back to at least the 1940s. [94] These revised documents specified that "allogeneic blood transfusions" were unacceptable whereas the former document (dated 1999) stated that "blood transfusions" were unacceptable. Jehovah’s Witnesses frequently carry a signed and witnessed Advance Decision Document listing the blood products and autologous procedures that are, or are not, acceptable to them. An unusual court case involving a Witness and a blood transfusion occurred in Pomona, CA. In the lawsuit Geyer filed in Superior Court, he contends he has suffered extreme emotional and physical trauma as a result of the transfusion. Two fundamental principles contained in the constitution of our own and other democratic countries specifically dictate that human rights are to be respected. The refusal of allogeneic human blood and blood products by Jehovah's Witness (JW) patients complicates the treatment of life-threatening anemia. Cowan also says Abanes omits "critical issues" in an attempt to "present the most negative face possible." "Youths Who Have Power Beyond What Is Normal". [11][105][109] In one particular case involving a Russian district court decision, however, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) found nothing in the judgments to suggest that any form of improper pressure or undue influence was applied. Please destroy these items and make sure that they are not distributed to the publishers." The Watch Tower Society has established Hospital Information Services to provide education and facilitate bloodless surgery. 1 By blood transfusions, they mean whole blood, red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma, or platelets. "Tom Blackwell, "Without fanfare, Jehovah's Witnesses quietly soften position on blood transfusions", "Outcome of Patients Who Refuse Transfusion After Cardiac Surgery", "Medical Risk Management: Preventive Legal Strategies for Health Care Providers", http://biotech.law.lsu.edu/Books/aspen/Aspen.html, "Exceptions to Informed Consent in Emergency Medicine", "Guidelines for managing conscientious objection to blood transfusion", "Certificate of Recognition issued by Society for the Advancement of Blood Management", H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute, "Responses by pregnant Jehovah's Witnesses on health care proxies", "Honoring Jehovah's Witnesses' advance directives in emergencies: a response to Drs. Print; Summary. Lee Elder, "Why some Jehovah's Witnesses accept blood and conscientiously reject official Watchtower Society blood policy". "[2][3] The belief is based on an interpretation of scripture that differs from other Christian denominations. At least lives will be save. "[122], Osamu Muramoto says the Watch Tower Society relies on discarded, centuries-old medical beliefs to support its assertion that blood transfusions are the same as eating blood. 12.2: Jehovah’s Witnesses and blood transfusion Jehovah’s Witnesses, with at least 7.5 million active members worldwide and around 130 000 in the UK, are the most well-known religious community who decline transfusion of specific blood components. "[83], In September 1956, Awake! An adult Jehovah’s Witness who is unable to consent to or refuse treatment . blood transfusion Jehovah’s Witnesses. Other fractions derived from blood are not prohibited. [43] The department was given oversight of each branch office's Hospital Information Desk,[44][45][46] and of one hundred Hospital Liaison Committees established throughout the United States. A baptized Witness who unrepentantly accepts a blood transfusion is deemed to have disassociated himself from the group by abandoning its doctrines and is subsequently subject to organized shunning by other members. A competent adult patient is free to decide ... not to have a blood transfusion. 222, 235-237. Jehovah’s Witness Liaison Committee Contact Mike Murphy 0114 247 2175 or mobile 07952 651164 mikemurphy@tiscali.co.uk Reference - Clinical strategies for managing haemorrhage and anaemia without blood transfusion (2003) Hospital information services for Jehovah’s Witnesses She underlines the fact that this occurred in the presence of knowledge of Biblical statements regarding blood. Jehovah’s Witnesses, apparently alone among Christian groups, believe this verse, along with others, prohibits them from accepting blood transfusions, … Blood donation strictly for purpose of further fractionation of red cells, white cells, platelets or plasma for either allogeneic or autologous transfusion. [65] In another study, Jehovah's Witness patients presented for labor and delivery showed a willingness to accept some form of blood or blood products. [80] The prohibition did not specify any punitive measures for accepting a transfusion, but by January 1961—in what was later described as an application of "increased strictness"[81]—it was ruled that it was a disfellowshipping offense to conscientiously accept a blood transfusion. Jehovah’s Witnesses (JWs) believe their Bible forbids them from accepting blood transfusions. Of these patients, 10 percent accepted whole blood transfusion. Case reports reveal JW patients have changed their earlier decision to accept blood treatment after a visit from the elders." [117], Kerry Louderback-Wood alleges that by labeling the currently acceptable blood fractions as "minute" in relation to whole blood, the Watch Tower organization causes followers to misunderstand the scope and extent of allowed fractions. "Are You Ready to Face a Faith-Challenging Medical Situation?". [105] He has questioned why donating blood and storing blood for autologous transfusion is deemed wrong, but the Watch Tower Society permits the use of blood components that must be donated and stored before Witnesses use them. And ... organ transplants are now permitted by the WTS. As to administering transfusions to non-members, The Watchtower stated that such a decision is "left to the Christian doctor's own conscience. stated, "certain blood fractions ... also come under the Scriptural ban". A proposal for a don't-ask-don't-tell policy", "Bioethical aspects of the recent changes in the policy of refusal of blood by Jehovah's Witnesses", "Jehovah's Witnesses drop transfusion ban". [76], In 1944, with the Watch Tower Society under the administration of president Nathan Homer Knorr, The Watchtower asserted that the decrees contained in Genesis 9:4 and Leviticus 17:10–14 forbade the eating or drinking of blood in biblical times "whether by transfusion or by the mouth" and that this applied "in a spiritual way to the consecrated persons of good-will today, otherwise known as 'Jonadabs' of the Lord's 'other sheep'. Lounge May 29, 2015 (24,290 Views 20 Comments) 729 Visitors; 1 Post If you find this topic helpful leave a comment. "Bridging the Gap Between Doctors and Witness Patients", January 3, 2006 Letter from Christian Congregation of Jehovah's Witnesses; To all Congregations, The Watchtower October 15, 1987 p. 14, "Three areas for attention were mentioned: secretly accepting a blood transfusion, masturbation, and alcohol abuse. 3 Comments. Jehovah's Witnesses worldwide refuse blood transfusion because of Jehovah's instructions at Leviticus 17:11,12 and Acts 15:28,29 in part it says;'no soul must eat blood' and 'abstain from blood'...blood here includes animal and human blood. God never issued regulations which prohibit the use of drugs, inoculations or blood transfusions. Jehovah's witness nurse and blood transfusion. Keith Cook, a drunken driver, had rammed his pickup truck into a stationary car, pushing it into a 55 year old woman, Jadine Russell who was standing by the side of the road. Office of Public Advocate, Practice Guidelines - Jehovahs Witnesses and Blood Transfusions. "[53] A Jehovah's Witnesses publication in 2000 reported that Argentina had fewer than a hundred HLC committeemen "giving vital information to the medical community", adding that "their work is complemented by hundreds of other self-sacrificing elders who make up Patient Visitation Groups that call on Witness patients to help and encourage them". "Jehovah's Witnesses, Blood Transfusions and the Tort of Misrepresentation", Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, Criticism of Jehovah's Witnesses § Blood, "Jehovah's Witnesses: Official Statement to the Media on Blood Transfusions", "More doctors honor religious objections to blood transfusions", "Bioethics of the refusal of blood by Jehovah's Witnesses: Part 3. Blood leaving the body of a human or animal must be disposed of. Buber states the Jehovah's Witness prisoners all ate blood sausage, until around 1943. Transfusions of pre-operative self-donated (. Individuals vary in their choice and it is important to clearly establish the preference of each patient. [38], In some countries, including Canada and the United Kingdom, a parent or guardian's decision can be legally overruled by medical staff. [120], Douglas E. Cowan, an academic in the sociology of religion, has claimed that members of the Christian countercult movement who criticize the Watch Tower Society, make selective use of information themselves. [68], From 1931,[69] when the name "Jehovah's witnesses" was adopted, Watch Tower Society publications maintained the view of Society founder Charles Taze Russell that the reference to abstaining from the eating of blood in the Apostolic Decree of Acts 15:19–29 was a "suggestion" to be given to Gentile converts. Members of the group who voluntarily accept a transfusion and are not deemed repentant are regarded as having disassociated themselves from the group by abandoning its doctrines[10][11][12] and are subsequently shunned by members of the organization. [55][56], Since the elaboration of the blood doctrine to the point of prohibiting transfusion, the majority of Jehovah's Witnesses have adopted the organization's position. Transfusions of autologous blood part of a "current therapy". [92] Members were instructed to personally decide if accepting a fraction would violate the doctrine on blood. For JW patients, when hemoglobin (Hb) levels decrease beyond traditional transfusion thresholds (<7 g/dL), alternative methods to allogeneic blood … Hence, blood transfusion is a form of cellular organ transplantation. [105] He says the Society offers no biblical explanation for differentiating between prohibited treatments and those considered a "matter of conscience", explaining the distinction is based entirely on arbitrary decisions of the Governing Body, to which Witnesses must adhere strictly on the premise of them being Bible-based "truth". Jehovah’s witnesses are not permitted to accept blood products or blood. [8] Witnesses are taught that the use of fractions such as albumin, immunoglobulins and hemophiliac preparations are not absolutely prohibited and are instead a matter of personal choice. [75] In 1940 Consolation magazine reported on a woman who accidentally shot herself with a revolver in her heart and survived a major surgical procedure during which an attending physician donated a quart of his own blood for transfusion. [54] Each branch office appoints PVG committeemen, who serve as volunteers. [31] Many physicians have expressed a willingness to respect patients' preferences and provide bloodless treatment[32][need quotation to verify] and about 200 hospitals offer bloodless medicine and surgery programs for patients who wish to avoid or limit blood transfusions. [59], Watch Tower publications have noted that within religions, the personal beliefs of members often differ from official doctrine. FOR JEHOVAH’S WITNESS PATIENTS . [131] Jehovah's Witnesses' view of meat and blood is different from that of kosher Jewish adherents, who go to great lengths to remove minor traces of blood. It is appropriate to have a frank, confidential discussion with the patient about the potential risks of their decision and the possible alternatives to transfusion, but the freely expressed wish of a competent adult must always be respected. [105] He has questioned why white blood cells (1 per cent of blood volume) and platelets (0.17 per cent) are forbidden, yet albumin (2.2 per cent of blood volume) is permitted. In 1989 The Watchtower stated, "Each individual must decide" whether to accept hemodilution and autologous blood salvage (cell saver) procedures. They have consistently refused donor blood ever since transfusions began to be widely used in civilian medical practice in the 1940s, and this scriptural position has not changed. Donald T. Ridley, "Jehovah's Witnesses' refusal of blood: obedience to scripture and religious conscience", "OK Kosher Certification — Salting of Meat", "SCT in Jehovah's Witnesses: the bloodless transplant", "Bloodless cardiac surgery: not just possible, but preferable", "Blood Transfusion or Not: A Literature Review of Bloodless Interventions to Treat Cancer Related Anemia". [66] Regarding Jehovah's Witnesses’ acceptance of the organization's official position on blood, Drs Cynthia Gyamfi and Richard Berkowitz state, "It is naïve to assume that all people in any religious group share the exact same beliefs, regardless of doctrine. It is on record that a significant number of Jehovah's Witnesses who had medical condition requiring blood transfusion for treatment died because they or their guardians refused blood transfusion because of religious belief. This service also maintains Hospital Liaison Committees, whose function is to provide support to adherents. Why should that not also be true of Jehovah's Witnesses? [127], David Malyon, chairman of the English Hospital Liaison Committee in Luton, England, has claimed that Muramoto's discussion of the differences between consuming blood and alcohol is pedantic and says blood laws in the Bible are based upon the reverence for life and its association with blood, and that laws should be kept in the spirit as much as in the letter. Dissident Witnesses say the Society's use of Leviticus 17:12 to support its opposition to blood transfusions[102][103] conflicts with its own teachings that Christians are not under the Mosaic law. [23] For procedures where there is no specific doctrinal prohibition, individuals are to obtain details from medical personnel and then make a personal decision.[24]. Youths who have Power Beyond what is Normal '' Jehovahs Witnesses and blood transfusions a position against `` the blood... A competent adult patient is free to decide... not to have a blood transfusion 1990 Watch Tower on. 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