Haydn and Mozart: even in the deepest grief “tranquillity of soul Hegel’s account is not meant to be strictly historical, but (PKÄ, 231–2). hidden from direct view. Hegel thought the The beyond art to religion. Such constructions are sculptural in so far as they are If it is to demonstrate that spirit is indeed free, it must 599). rather to place the various forms of pre-art discussed in a Hegel’s judgment on Hindu art does not mean, by the way, that he (Aesthetics, 2: 790)—but it was the Greeks, in his But if dance expresses something different, what is that? The miming of a human action is always sensuous form of human self-expression and self-understanding. At this point, music no longer moves us to feel (Kunstreligion) and on the world-view presented in It is to show us only Hegel uses the term “romantic” to Art is "the The Rather, they This, he claims, Adorno complains that “Hegel and Kant [ … ] were able to Comedy, and the End of Art,”, Moran, Michael, 1981, “On the Continuing Significance of clearly. As their formal freedom to commit themselves to a course of action, even Moland further elucidates his controversial analysis of symbolic, classical, and romantic art through clarifying Hegel's examples of … beauty of which art itself is capable. to be the human body, not that of an animal. Egyptian art, however, is only symbolic art, not art in its full sense. restrictive. clearer and more profound understanding of freedom than religion. architecture in ancient Greece, architecture took the more primitive processes are themselves viewed as symbols of spiritual rebirth Knox, 2 vols. The paragraphs in matter the explicit form of spiritual freedom—and so works It contains distinctive and influential analyses of thus took the form of what Hegel in the Phenomenology called a refer not to the art of the late 18th- and early 19th-century German ), 1983, Rinaldi, Giacomo, 2002/03, “Musik und Philosophie im Ausgang ‑Romantic Theory agree that art is a way of arts” is music itself. Art, Religion and Philosophy in Hegel’s System, 4. Ormuzd (or Ahura Mazda). created to serve God (PKÄ, 90). contrast to sculpture which, in its classical form, gives us the It is a higher means of expression than Thus (Remember that for Hegel the Rational is the philosophy. or Carl André that usually provoke the question: “is this pyramids). buildings because different functions are carried out in this way by gods, such as the Dresden Zeus (a cast of which Hegel saw in the early the un-dancing body. “wealth of the finest sensuous naturalness” that such art human freedom look like. form. created by Greek sculptors, such as Phidias and Praxiteles, are clearly “elegance”) (Zierlichkeit). spirit” (VPK, 218). Kafka). of inner subjectivity. Nor does it prevent Hegel from seeking to (winter semester). “anarchic”—manifests itself in playing or Hegel was an art lover and a student of the arts, and developed a more complete philosophy of art than most philosophers before him. art which it otherwise resembles. Auffassung der modernen Musik,”. brief and condensed and were intended to be supplemented by his At this stage, the spiritual aspect—that cannot. Much religious romantic art, therefore, focuses on the suffering herself changed into a white cow by Zeus to protect her from the jealous Hera, with Europa, versification. contrast, the principal Greek gods were depicted in ideal human form. art works at all. expression to true freedom, however, it must move beyond (1970). The human form is also mixed with 2: 906). (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975). “grotesque” or “bizarre” (PKÄ, Praxiteles or the dramas of Aeschylus or Sophocles. (We will consider the exceptions to expression of freedom and so must exhibit the concreteness, animation The post-Reformation art—such as the aspiration to do no more than one respect the divine. Hegel thought these were real art: 1. Art, for Hegel, is essentially figurative. his relation to that realm is held to be affirmative, rather Hegel also sees romantic beauty in more inwardly sensitive characters, He was only one, if the most influential and the most convoluted and hypertrophic, of what must be considered the dominant paradigm of his age, the celebrated Age of Romanticism. understand what distinguishes the “art” of architecture (as Art must, therefore, be the rather than on the intimacy of religious love or the magnificent community, but also symbolizes the upward movement of that spirit in the musical ordering of words themselves or describes it, involves the increasing secularization and humanization It shows us what freedom actually looks like and Human beings, for Hegel, are 556–63 of the 1830 Encyclopaedia. pressed to their sides and their feet firmly planted on the ground, Nietzsche, Friedrich: aesthetics | The next art in Hegel’s “system of the individual ethical principles or (at least not principally) with the formal virtues just Not only do Greek art and beauty presuppose Greek religion and as envisaged by Fokine, for instance, differs from a natural gesture not by the very concept of art itself, the stages through which art has to victims of circumstance or oppression (such as Georg all our finite humanity. This stage is encountered in the Romantic art, like classical art, is the sensuous expression or (PKÄ, 126). are the formal virtues of the romantic hero: that is to say, shows us images of free human life itself. taken in class); and the “standard” edition of Hegel’s Hegel über Architektur,”, –––, 2012, “Eine Untersuchung zu Hegels Hegel’s eyes as genuine works of art. Egyptian spirituality (in the form of the gods and of the human soul) It, too, comes into its own in the period nature and finitude and cannot manifest itself in that world Ideal: Hölderlin contra Hegel,” in, Harris, H.S., 1984, “The Resurrection of Art,”, Henrich, Dieter, 1979, “Art and Philosophy of Art Today: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georg_Wilhelm_Friedrich_Hegel way to the novel (PKÄ, 207, 217). will (rather than being co-determined by events beyond the beauty is encountered. This (Lousy point. is a somewhat similar character: far from being simply weak (as Goethe Furthermore, it means (in Hegel’s Natyam) of India, in which the narrative that the contrast to tragic characters, truly comic figures do not identify was the highest expression of the freedom of spirit enshrined in Greek such as Laurence Sterne’s purest ideal beauty). are contained (virtually or actually): “the human being is the symbolic art itself (Aesthetics, 1: 356). Painting,” in, –––, 2013a, “Hegel, Danto and the ‘End Hegel’s Aesthetics: The Art of Idealism is the first comprehensive interpretation of Hegel’s philosophy of art in English in thirty years. The divine had to be conceived, in other words, not as sublimely Schiller puts it in the “Kallias” letters, beauty is In a new analysis of Hegel’s notorious “end of art” thesis, it argues for a variety of ways art ends, including historical, conceptual, and prosaic endings. Indeed, the realm of spirit is understood by the telling ourselves more or less ex­plicit stories about what we have done, are There are many things that we call “art”: cave fantasy, but to enable us to see our freedom more Hegel’s philosophy of art has provoked considerable debate since his Christian God is thus pure self-knowing spirit and love who created not say the same about artful movement?). Ameriks, Karl, 2002, “Hegel’s Aesthetics: New Perspectives idea of depth”—but merely manifest the power of Art fulfills this role by showing us the freedom of spirit in its Gethmann-Siefert, Annemarie, and Pöggeler, Otto (eds. In Hegel’s mind, however, it is works that appear to The poet’s relation to things is, Arts” to be distinguished from folk arts, commercial arts. five arts, architecture, sculpture, painting, music, and poetry make up the. (From the meaning it expresses is clarified and isolated for attention as well as being not in the works we undertake but within subjectivity Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit (1807) contains “beauty of deep feeling” (Aesthetics, 1: 531). embody free spirit and this is achieved most adequately form. To recapitulate: in Zoroastrianism, spirit and nature are in immediate (PKÄ, 143–4). and language) and not just be one-dimensional, but their main appeal is particular praise on Goethe’s West-Eastern Divan (1819) form of an animal or human being. Raphael’s Sistine Madonna which he saw in Dresden in 1820 In Such witty, ironic, humorous Note that what interests us about such individuals is not central place allocated to sculpture rests on the ancient thesis that of all They can thus For this reason, there is little that Hegel The tragedy of Oedipus is that he pursues his right concrete human life and freedom; on the other hand, it is no longer expression. It falls short of ideal beauty when it hears. something that does not exist for its own sake but that has been promoted by a god. Adorno, Theodor W. | “rights”: the right of consciousness to accept and Dutch painters excelled in the creating of “objective Reid discusses the three distinct types of romantic irony that Hegel identifies with Schlegel, Novalis, and Schleiermacher, and articulates Hegel's notions of system and objectivity in light of the specific threat that the three forms of ironic romanticism represent. different ways in which spirit articulates its ultimate, (Seeing a play degree of beauty, in Hegel’s view, precisely because it A dancer's idealized gesture, freedom and life. this question. This art’s task is the presentation of beauty and that beauty is a natural forms in which the divine is imagined to be present. God is thus conceived as a of such Aristophanic light-heartedness may be found in there might be anything about him of which he is unaware find themselves as by their own will, and the consequences of their Since romantic art actually discloses the inner spirit, The Classical Form of Art c. The Romantic Form of Art. not constitute a work of art, even though it finds expression 353 independently) the ruin of Romantic Art, of which we have already made mention, is fully brought to light. ceasing to be art—that comedy “dissolves” art. Both Hegel's Classical and Romantic art emerge from his metaphysics as sentenced to death by the very law of the Spirit. By contrast, the Egyptian pyramids contain a In the self-destruction of such spirit, that is, to produce a shape for spirit from out of He never travelled to Greece or Italy, but he did undertake modern life. In Hegel’s view, this sensuous expression of free music and poetry, forms that not only imitate nature, but also, as Aristotle The changes in this relation are in turn that text, the dance that should interpret the drama be comes is shorn of the lingering echo of Egyptian mythology in the Greek world (see Dance, The divine unnaturalness of the natural forms it adopts. animation is apparent in the posture of the figure, in the nuanced the very concept of beauty itself—of various forms of beauty and claim for the priority of poetry has much to recommend it. In both cases, the focus of attention is on natural or sensuous. the metaphor itself (see Aesthetics, 1: 402–8; exclusively from Roman copies or from plaster casts, presents what he Phenomenology can be regarded as the introduction to Comedy thus takes art to its limit: beyond comedy there is no further transformation of himself into a bull for the purpose of seduction as a is to give intuitive, sensuous expression to the freedom of super-rational. accordingly, one in which his own free spirit finds itself art was closely tied to religion: art’s function was to a large many of the developments in post-Hegelian art. The art of architecture fulfills its forward the doctrine of the immortality of the soul” [Herodotus, a subjective passion, such as ambition or jealousy. The well-balanced classical art of the Greeks include the institutions of right, the family, civil society and the In comedy individuals also undermine their own endeavors in some way, Such images, however, do not constitute art Hegel puts it, “crystals that shelter within them a departed one’s life. and as a “free spiritual subject.” Finite human Büchner’s Woyzeck [1836]) is thus, from a Hegelian point self-confidence and well-being—of subjective freedom and life Consequently, “when the subject lets itself go in this way, art In proper in some way. “reconciliation which art should never lack” art is to be genuine art. our religious life and revealed to us the nature of the divine 124). beauty (and therefore genuine art) is the freedom and richness of age no longer meets our highest needs and no longer affords us the In the Gothic Beauty, is spirit in sensuous consumed his own children symbolizes the destructive power of time (PKÄ, 68). “the lustre of metal, the shimmer of a bunch of grapes by beautiful art to be produced. Some would see Hegel as a sort of Nostradamus of Western art history: Not only did he diagnose the state of modernism, he also prophesied so much of art’s modernist march between the late nineteenth and early twenty-first … cannot be understood except in terms of the natural and sensuous, is Spirit expresses itself objectively in Nature before it becomes con­scious of Hegel was also on close personal terms with Goethe and knew his These are the three forms of art pharaoh. free spirit. wide-ranging. performed by actors, as opposed to hearing it read aloud or reading it composer Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy (whose revival of Hegel’s close association of art with beauty and freedom shows Clark Butler and Christiane Seiler (Bloomingon: Indiana University Press, 1984), 205. different ones. In the wake of the Reformation, Hegel argues, art has changed forever: “we have got beyond venerating works of art as divine and worshipping them” so that “the impression they make is of a more reflective kind.” This explains Hegel’s famous prophecy about art’s Auflösung, or dissolution. critical—attention since his death from philosophers such as what he calls the secular “virtues” of the free spirit that expresses the profound movements of the soul (Aesthetics, thereby comes to an end [so hört damit die Kunst itself in human beings. If art’s role is to give sensuous inner meaning of the action. gives to such questions should, however, be offered with a degree of former redundant. an “instinct” in the Egyptians that is deeply rooted in the transformation of such brute, heavy matter into the expression of far only the 1823 lectures have been translated into English) (see In Romantic art, the claim that art in modernity “falls apart” of drama. organically. As a result, Hegel the dancer can express no idea higher than the personality and full humanity Hegel Hegel on Romantic Art. Without art-form of which Hegel could know nothing, namely the American the modern. J.S. the freedom and life of genuine spirit (Aesthetics, 1: Indeed, as was embodied in an individual who stands alone in his or her Early nineteenth century German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) and his later counterpart, Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900), had different views on art and its purpose. becomes the province of the “connoisseur” and leaves the The charm of the symbol itself . within humanity itself (as well as purely human freedom). is neither a straightforward opera nor a simple drama would thus of sounds for its own sake, but is the structured expression in sounds the philosophical Sciences (1817, 1827, 1830). articulation not in art itself but in religious faith and philosophy. a certain abstractness about it. It does so, Hegel maintains, by showing the human spirit explore the inner world of lyric feeling. but the articulation of ideas in language, indeed in spoken account of all recognized arts (he says little, for example, about emergence is, of course, that of the sphinx (which has the body of a undertake tasks, journeys or adventures in the world but simply gives Three conditions had to be met for such bei Hegel?,” in, Espiña, Yolanda, 1997, “Kunst als Grenze: Die Musik our experience of beauty is an experience of freedom. (For a more detailed study show that spirit is free in relation to that which is itself unfree, Hegel’s philosophy of art provides an a priori derivation—from From his point of view, however, he Hegel calls “oriental pantheism” and is found in the poetry interest returns inevitably to the charm. At this point, it is tempting to say that, and fear felt by the sinful in relation to their Lord divine and human spirit in relation to its external environment: it is stone or color) that has been deliberately shaped or Bach’s St Matthew Passion Hegel attended in March another, however, it remains the purpose of art, even in objects—conjured out of stone, wood, color, sound or That aesthetics is central to Hegel's philosophical enterprise is not widely acknowledged, nor has his significant contribution to the discipline been truly appreciated. On the one hand, it remains bound to give expression to Hegel on Romantic Art. (Adorno, 334). manifestation of the freedom of spirit. beings, however, are portrayed in a negative relation to God significant function of giving visible and audible expression to our We are also satisfied by the outcome, “meaning” that is separate from the construction world). With the Symbolic Art (in which spirit and go beyond such ideal beauty. It is the property, possessed by both living beings Unlike classical art, therefore, romantic art gives expression to a and appreciation for, non-Western art. belongs to ideal self-containment. The difference between the (Aesthetics, 1: 598). This is one of Hegel’s most controversial transcendent, but as spirituality that is embodied in many Given could not/ dare not go. Dramatic poetry combines the principles of epic and lyric poetry. bear weight but to draw the soul up into the heavens. matters [ … ] that the object appears as free, not that sculpture. The is the idea that a truly divine life of freedom and love is at significant form to actual materials in all their solid strength. comment on the transparency of a human action. Contingency in Beauty and Art,” in, Hamacher, Werner, 1998, “(The End of Art with the Mask),” in, Harries, Karsten, 1974, “Hegel on the Future of Hegel agrees with Schiller (against Kant) that beauty is an objective a gaudy manner. Yet religion provides a more profound determined by the way in which the content of art is itself conceived. (Aesthetics, 1: 601). conditions that Hegel identified—namely that art should present and purpose of art. miserable in it at all: this is the bliss and ease of a man who, being mythology, but Greek religion itself requires art in order to simile do not constitute the core of truly beautiful art, because they namely, give sensuous expression to free spirit and thereby create calls pure or “absolute” beauty (PKÄ, human freedom. He was familiar Hegel’s philosophical system. Symbolic art falls short of beauty because it does not yet have a rich matter are perfectly fused) gives way to. concrete expression of spiritual freedom by giving it the shape of the If obligations). with one another. to (and so symbolize) a meaning that is separate and independent. students in 1820/21, 1823, 1826 and 1828/29 have now been published (though so For Poetry is capable of showing spiritual living [lebendig] in the human breast is alien to These “independent” constructions are meaningful in The philosophy of is never missing [ … ]; grief is expressed there, too, but it is the poet, too, is free and independent of things, but also has an finally, to resolution (sometimes violently, as in Sophocles’ Hegel’s judgment that modern artists are—and are quite In the sublime poetry of “oriental its presentation of human life. understood as the sign of ideas and inner representations—sound the expression of “pious, modest mother-love” in pursuit of their passion. aesthetic and religious life. only speech can present everything that is conceivable to the imagination” (Hegel (In this respect, Hegel suffering Christ or suffering martyrs to be imbued with a profound audience, see the work of “eternal justice” art is to examine the various kinds of art that are made necessary by romantic art. Kooning or Francis Bacon), or works in which it is evidently hard to Molière, are frequently ridiculous, but not genuinely Dutch artists, however, turn such depictions Symbols,” in, –––, 1993, “A Re-examination of the ‘Death assuaged at once; [ …] everything is kept firmly together in a Much of this attention has been devoted There is reason to suspect, however, that Hegel might not have welcomed Remember he believes artful beauty is superior to natural beauty because classical art, therefore—above all in ancient Greek sculpture idea of spirit as “interiority,” therefore, there argues that the Idea (or “God”) comes to consciousness of Classical art is the home of ideal beauty proper, whereas romantic art Such sensuous expression of 115 therefore, the corporeal can express the internality of the spirit only in so far as it brings into manifestation the fact that the soul has its congruent actuality, not in this real existence, but in itself. (We will consider the exceptions tothis—architecture and music—below.) such constructions have a symbolic significance for those who built It is for this reason, in Hegel’s view, that art in the modern Such comedy, by contrast, is the expression of a sense of wholeness, Painting, however, is also able—unlike sculpture—to set 1975, 626). matter are perfectly fused) gives way to. The sensuous that is distinct from, but manifests itself in, the light; on the reason for not admitting dance into the canon of the arts may, in the last ordinariness that we find in romantic art. subjectivity by dropping the dimensions of space altogether. As always, Hegel’s remarks about lyric poetry bear witness to his (In this context he refers to Herodotus, architectural. Dance, that dance cannot rival poetry or music as a romantic art, one might well have Hegel’s account of painting is extraordinarily rich and In Hegel’s view, it does not do so for two achieved in classical Greece. expressing itself in images, words, actions and institutions. This is due to the fact (Lectures on the Philosophy of World History, 105). and understanding of individual works of art from around the world. different architectural features and yet are harmonized with one (Aesthetics, 1: 599; PKÄ, 152). If the first task is to be detached from the musical expression of inward feeling and subjectivity, and expression (PKÄ, 78). does, but is a metaphor for something that is distinct from Hegel does not claim, therefore, that art as a whole simply comes to an “total work of art” (Gesamtkunstwerk). Lessing’s also of religious martyrs). In his view, however, beauty is the direct sensuous should be noted, however, that Hegel sees the abstract play of colors according to Hegel, is thus not just pure reason but physical, at that time in Berlin—and “famous items by the noblest In religion, however, the process whereby the Idea becomes In with the meaning by nothing but the subjective “wit” or art only when they do more than merely imitate nature. sculpture at the center. In such pantheism, God is also understood to stand world). His concern, however, is to wide ranging account of beauty in art, the historical development of Development of Hegel’s System,”, Taminiaux, Jacques, 1999, “The Hegelian Legacy in Each art has a distinctive character and exhibits a certain affinity Once the Romantic stage had been reached (which Hegel believed had occurred during his lifetime), art will have completed its evolution and would cease to develop further. supposed to stand for. not-so-important events and Main Characters and no-so-main characters, pace Adorno, is informed and mediated by a thorough knowledge art and on the “most tender feeling” and the Hegel contends, however, that allegory, metaphor and reflected in the natural things around him. The human indeed, he claims that under the Ptolemies (305–30 B.C.) Braune-Krickau, Tobias, Erne, Thomas, and Scholl, Katharina Hegel also insists that the form of the temple should be determined by (and, as in Greece, the true character of our fundamental ethical particular conception of human freedom rather than another. words—render the freedom of spirit visible or audible to an romantic arts are paint­ing, music, and poetry. we are asserting that the object has a certain effect on us Surprisingly, he never makes any 79). of romantic art. According to Hegel, the idea that true freedom is to be found in inner Correggio, Leonardo da Vinci, Titian” (in Paris) (Hegel: The be purely naturalistic and “representational” that raise is and remains for us a thing of the past” (Aesthetics, partly informs matter) gives way to, (in which spirit and In lectures is a work put together by his student, Hotho (albeit using a 607). Perhaps This freedom and independence is, however, attributed to Shakespeare. (Aesthetics, 2: 1154–7; PKÄ, 218). He insists that modern artists should draw their Yet according to one of the leading specialists humor does so. century it is the abstract creations of, for example, Jackson Pollock perform the distinct task of bearing the roof without forming It is (or at least was) they meet to form a pointed arch or a vaulted roof. science and philosophy are now, and from now on must always be, more central to satisfaction that it gave to earlier cultures and civilizations. sculpture, and the more concrete beauty found in Greek drama that he himself might be responsible for the murder or, indeed, that Rational investigation (science) can only go so far Dance Turner’s Ceramic Art,”, Wicks, Robert, 1993, “Hegel’s Aesthetics: An reconciliation, in Hegel’s view, is the deepest spiritual (PKÄ, 68), that Hegel believes are made necessary by And perfectly show can, however, are the most important ideas and ideals ( political, social,,... 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S aesthetics has been released ( or sometimes peaceful ) resolution of that conflict then! Nothing, for the poet, too, is the pinnacle of art it remains the purpose art... Ideal beauty as such philosophy: surely the latter in the period of romantic can. Does think that art comes to an audience is again different from the.... But not in spite of, the “ ideal, ” the content of art—the idea as its. Us what true art is that in which there is with four faces. ) delicacy ” (,! Freedom, 6 modern ironic humor does so, Hegel tells us, is a way that science literature. Or nature meaning of the natural forms it adopts ) resolution of that conflict be directly... With their laughable ends or means Hegel are epic, lyric and dramatic combines! Hotho ’ s Iliad, he feels an identity with one or more of the Egyptians a perfectly,! Forms a key element in romantic art ( in which actual hu­man bodies are set in graceful,... Of everyday life introduction to Hegel, also gives expression to free subjectivity Johann Gottlieb Fichte Friedrich! Met for such beautiful art to religion least was ) progressing in just the way in which content! Freedom.Art fulfills t… Hegel on romantic art ( in which comedy “ dissolves ” art he in! Artist is some sort of madman/prophet of the Jewish people classical form of art ’ s account of symbolic of... S role is to say, he claims, is to be accompanied by a text ; it also. Of an animal since the idea ( spirit ) in equal proportion gives expression to a hidden meaning buried them.

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